By Donka Minkova
Phonological evolution is an important section of the final historical past of the language; the subject material is either major by itself phrases and suitable in curricular phrases. This ebook describes the segmental and prosodic adjustments within the historical past of English, offers analyses of those adjustments either as phonological occasions and in terms of the evolution of interlocking features of previous English and highlights the relevance of the subjects and probably generate extra curiosity by means of projecting historic phonological swap onto Present-Day English and its forms. the improvement of the English sound approach is one of the most sensible studied a part of the background of the language, despite the fact that no updated, student-friendly survey exists: this e-book fills the space.
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Extra info for A Historical Phonology of English
The orthographic ‘standard’ is the conformity with a unified written norm that keeps words looking the same on the page or on the screen. Apart from some well-known national differences, such as American English versus British English spelling of -or/-our or -er/-re words, the spelling norms are shared by all varieties of English. It is the variation in the spoken standards that is our main target of interest, and PERIODS IN THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH 19 since we are limiting our scope to phonology, we can talk of ‘standard accents’.
1 shows the more detailed anatomy of the upper vocal tract. 1 ‘For many speakers of American English, the approximant ɹ at the beginning of the word “red” bears the same relationship to the vowel in “bird” as the approximant j in “yes” does to the vowel i in “heed”’ (Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 323). 1 Cross-section of the vocal tract (from Ogden (2009) Introduction to English Phonetics, Edinburgh University Press, p. 10) The characterisation of consonants is traditionally done with reference to three physical criteria: voicing, place and manner of articulation.
The airstream is allowed free passage through the mouth. The quality of a vowel sound changes with the movement of the lips and the tongue. Minor shifts in the tongue position, difficult for the speaker to feel, produce quite distinct auditory and acoustic results, described along the dimensions of height and backness. Height refers to the distance of the tongue from the roof of the mouth: the smaller the distance, the higher (or closer) the vowel. Backness refers to the tongue’s distance from the front teeth: the further away the highest point of the tongue is from the teeth, the more pronounced the backness feature is.
A Historical Phonology of English by Donka Minkova