By Vilem Mathesius, Josef Vachek
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Extra resources for A Functional Analysis of Present Day English on a General Linguistic Basis
To the categories of so-called extra-lingual reality. What is meant by this conception can best be shown by the three main word classes: according to this theory, nouns are the names of objects, adjectives denote permanent qualities t h a t do not change before our eyes, and verbs in turn denote such aspects of objects that can change before our eyes (cf. F R I E D R I C H S L O T T Y 1 9 2 9 ) . Contrary to this view, the other theory asserts that word classes correspond to syntactic categories.
S H O R T E N I N G OF W O R D S A N D C O I N I N G OF N E W N A M I N G U N I T S As noted above, the basic t y p e of naming unit in English is t h e word or a word group. I t should be added t h a t English independent words tend towards monosyllabism. Words taken over from Latin usually have several syllables, whereas native and domesticated foreign words are mostly monosyllabic (cf. the difference between short and long words, mentioned above). I n accordance THE FORM OF T H E NAMING UNIT 35 with this tendency towards monosyllabism, English also shows a predilection for the shortening of words, especially in colloquial speech.
The produce, the Liberal miss ('the failure of the Liberals') and the like. The mutual relations between nouns and adjectives on the one hand, and nouns and verbs on the other hand, are the most important chapters as far as conversion of one category into another is concerned. 42 There are, however, other conversion phenomena which, though less typical, are the more interesting. 5. T H E RELATION BETWEEN ADJECTIVES IN ENGLISH AND ADVERBS Mention should be made at least of the transition of adjectives into adverbs.
A Functional Analysis of Present Day English on a General Linguistic Basis by Vilem Mathesius, Josef Vachek